Kawahara, Yuto


Tripartite Symbiosis of an Anaerobic Scuticociliate with Two Hydrogenosome-Associated Endosymbionts, a Holospora -Related Alphaproteobacterium and a Methanogenic Archaeon

Takeshita et al. (2019). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 85 (24)
Ca. Hydrogenosomobacter endosymbioticus Ca. Hydrogenosomobacter
Tripartite symbioses between anaerobic ciliated protists and their intracellular archaeal and bacterial symbionts are not uncommon, but most reports have been based mainly on microscopic observations. Deeper insights into the function, ecology, and evolution of these fascinating symbioses involving partners from all three domains of life have been hampered by the difficulties of culturing anaerobic ciliates in the laboratory and the frequent loss of their prokaryotic partners during long-term cu