‘Candidatus Paenicardinium endonii’, an endosymbiont of the plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines (Nemata: Tylenchida), affiliated to the phylum Bacteroidetes

Noel et al. (2006). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 56 (7)
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Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics General Medicine Microbiology
Bacteria-like endosymbionts of females of the plant-parasitic nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and Heterodera goettingiana and juveniles of Heterodera glycines were first observed during transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies conducted in the 1970s. These organisms were characterized as being rod-shaped, ranging in size from 0.3 to 0.5 μm in diameter and 1.8 to 3 μm in length and containing structures labelled as striated inclusion bodies or tubular structures. A population of H. glycines was obtained from the soybean field where infected nematodes were first discovered in order to conduct TEM studies of females and males and to determine the phylogenetic position of the H. glycines endosymbiont among bacteria by studying the 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences. The bacterium was observed in the pseudocoelom and intestine of juveniles, females and males, in hypodermal chords of juveniles and males, in ovary walls and in oocytes and spermatozoa. The bacterium was polymorphic, measuring 0.4–0.8×2.5–4.5 μm, and many specimens contained an array of microfilament-like structures similar to those observed in ‘Candidatus Cardinium hertigii’, the endosymbiont of Encarsia spp. wasps. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes of the H. glycines-infecting bacterium revealed 93 % and 81 % sequence identity, respectively, to the homologous genes in ‘Candidatus C. hertigii’. Thus, the name ‘Candidatus Paenicardinium endonii’ is proposed for the bacterial endosymbiont of the plant-parasitic nematode H. glycines.
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