Prevalence of Cardinium Bacteria in Planthoppers and Spider Mites and Taxonomic Revision of “ Candidatus Cardinium hertigii” Based on Detection of a New Cardinium Group from Biting Midges

Nakamura et al. (2009). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75 (21)
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Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Biotechnology Ecology Food Science
ABSTRACT Cardinium bacteria, members of the phylum Cytophaga - Flavobacterium - Bacteroides (CFB), are intracellular bacteria in arthropods that are capable of inducing reproductive abnormalities in their hosts, which include parasitic wasps, mites, and spiders. A high frequency of Cardinium infection was detected in planthoppers (27 out of 57 species were infected). A high frequency of Cardinium infection was also found in spider mites (9 out of 22 species were infected). Frequencies of double infection by Cardinium and Wolbachia bacteria ( Alphaproteobacteria capable of manipulating reproduction of their hosts) were disproportionately high in planthoppers but not in spider mites. A new group of bacteria, phylogenetically closely related to but distinct from previously described Cardinium bacteria (based on 16S rRNA and gyrB genes) was found in 4 out of 25 species of Culicoides biting midges. These bacteria possessed a microfilament-like structure that is a morphological feature previously found in Cardinium and Paenicardinium . The bacteria close to the genus Cardinium consist of at least three groups, A, B, and C. Group A is present in various species of arthropods and was previously referred to as “ Candidatus Cardinium hertigii,” group B is present in plant parasitic nematodes and was previously referred to as “ Candidatus Paenicardinium endonii,” and group C is present in Culicoides biting midges. On the basis of morphological and molecular data, we propose that the nomenclature of these three groups be integrated into a single species, “ Candidatus Cardinium hertigii.”
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