Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense

Liefting (2021).
Names (1)
Abstract Phytoplasmas are wall-less, phloem-limited unculturable bacteria that are naturally spread by sap-sucking insects. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense', subgroup 16SrXII-B, is associated with a wide range of diseases in Australia and New Zealand. Important commercial crop hosts of 'Ca. Phytoplasma australiense' include grapevine, papaya and strawberry. This phytoplasma is associated with rapid death of its papaya and cabbage tree hosts. In New Zealand, the insect vectors have been confirmed to be the endemic Cixiid planthoppers, Zeoliarus atkinsoni and Z. oppositus, while in Australia no vector has yet been determined, although the leafhopper, Orosius argentatus, has been implicated. Long distance spread of the phytoplasma is possible through infected vegetative propagating material. 'Ca. Phytoplasma australiense' is on the A1 list of regulated organisms for Canada and Bahrain, and is listed as a quarantine pest for the USA.
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