‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ distribution and diversity in Scotland and the characterisation of novel haplotypes from Craspedolepta spp. (Psyllidae: Aphalaridae)

Sumner-Kalkun et al. (2020). Scientific Reports 10 (1)
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AbstractThe phloem limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) is associated with disease in Solanaceous and Apiaceous crops. This bacterium has previously been found in the UK in Trioza anthrisci, but its impact on UK crops is unknown. Psyllid and Lso diversity and distribution among fields across the major carrot growing areas of Scotland were assessed using real-time PCR and DNA barcoding techniques. Four Lso haplotypes were found: C, U, and two novel haplotypes. Lso haplotype C was also found in a small percentage of asymptomatic carrot plants (9.34%, n = 139) from a field in Milnathort where known vectors of this haplotype were not found. This is the first report of Lso in cultivated carrot growing in the UK and raises concern for the carrot and potato growing industry regarding the potential spread of new and existing Lso haplotypes into crops. Trioza anthrisci was found present only in sites in Elgin, Moray with 100% of individuals harbouring Lso haplotype C. Lso haplotype U was found at all sites infecting Trioza urticae and at some sites infecting Urtica dioica with 77.55% and 24.37% average infection, respectively. The two novel haplotypes were found in Craspedolepta nebulosa and Craspedolepta subpunctata and named Cras1 and Cras2. This is the first report of Lso in psyllids from the Aphalaridae. These new haplotypes were most closely related to Lso haplotype H recently found in carrot and parsnip. Lso was also detected in several weed plants surrounding carrot and parsnip fields. These included two Apiaceous species Aegropodium podagraria (hap undetermined) and Anthriscus sylvestris (hap C); one Gallium sp. (Rubiaceae) (hap undetermined); and Chenopodium album (Amaranthaceae) (hap undetermined).
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