Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii

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Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii” Sassera et al., 2006
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Sassera et al., 2006
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N.L. n. mitochondrium -i, a mitochondrion; N.L. gen. n. mitochondrii, of a mitochondrion


Sassera, et al (2006): Candidatus M. mitochondrii’ appears in EM observations (Lewis, 1979; Zhu et al., 1992; Sacchi et al., 2004) as a Gram-negative bacterium with a bacillus shape of ≈ 0.45 μm in diameter and ≈1.2 μm in length. This bacterium is observed within various cell types (lumenal cells, funicular cells and oocytes) of the ovary of the hard tick I. ricinus (Ixodidae). In all of the above cell types, the bacteria are observed free in the cytoplasm or included in a host-derived membrane. In addition, in luminal cells and oocytes, the bacterium is also observed within the mitochondria, in the periplasmic space between the two membranes of these organelles. As the development of the oocyte proceeds, the bacteria appear to consume the inner part of the mitochondria and multiply therein. The mitochondrial matrix is reduced as a result and some mitochondria appear as sacs full of bacteria (Sacchi et al., 2004). Different numbers of bacteria have been observed within the mitochondria, from a single bacterium to over 20. Despite the high number of mitochondria consumed by the bacterium, the eggs of the tick develop normally. In situ hybridization with probes designed to target specific 16S rRNA gene regions resulted in the staining of only ovarian cells in female ticks (Beninati et al., 2004). In male ticks, there is only PCR evidence for the presence of the bacterium (Lo et al., 2006). The symbiont appears to be ubiquitous in the females of I. ricinus across its distribution (prevalence, 100 %), while a significantly lower prevalence is observed in males (44 %). In males that test positive by PCR, the bacterial load also appears lower compared with females (Lo et al., 2006). Evidence for efficient vertical transmission of the bacterium has been reported based on PCR screening of eggs. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes from ticks from 11 different countries from across the distribution of I. ricinus showed a low level of variability in both genes. One substitution in 380 bases was found in the 16S rRNA gene sequence and two substitutions in 519 bases were found in the gyrB gene sequence (Lo et al., 2006). [...] ‘Candidatus M. mitochondrii’ belongs to the phylum Proteobacteria, to the class Alphaproteobacteria and to the order Rickettsiales. ‘Candidatus M. mitochondrii’ is assigned on the basis of the 16S rRNA (AJ566640) and gyrB gene sequences (AM159536).
Bacteria » Pseudomonadota » Alphaproteobacteria » Rickettsiales » Candidatus Midichloriaceae » Candidatus Midichloria » Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii
Candidatus Midichloria gtdb


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Citation Title
Mariconti et al., 2012, Pathogens and Global Health Humans parasitized by the hard tickIxodes ricinusare seropositive toMidichloria mitochondrii: isMidichloriaa novel pathogen, or just a marker of tick bite?
Mariconti et al., 2012, Microbiology A study on the presence of flagella in the order Rickettsiales: the case of ‘Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii’
Williams-Newkirk et al., 2012, Experimental and Applied Acarology Presence, genetic variability, and potential significance of “Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii” in the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum
Najm et al., 2011, Parasitology Research Detection of bacteria related to Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii in tick cell lines
Harrus et al., 2011, Clinical Microbiology and Infection Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma platys, Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii and Babesia canis vogeli in ticks from Israel
Sassera et al., 2010, Trends in Acarology ‘Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii’, formerly IricES1, a symbiont of the tick Ixodes ricinus that resides in the host mitochondria
Richard et al., 2009, Clinical Microbiology and Infection Detection of a new bacterium related to ‘Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii’ in bed bugs
Sassera et al., 2006, International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology ‘Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii’, an endosymbiont of the tick Ixodes ricinus with a unique intramitochondrial lifestyle
Effective publication

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