Microscopic and metatranscriptomic analyses revealed unique cross-domain parasitism between phylum Candidatus Patescibacteria/candidate phyla radiation and methanogenic archaea in anaerobic ecosystems

Kuroda et al. (2024). mBio 15 (3)
Names (1)
Microbiology Virology
ABSTRACT To verify whether members of the phylum Candidatus Patescibacteria parasitize archaea, we applied cultivation, microscopy, metatranscriptomic, and protein structure prediction analyses on the Patescibacteria-enriched cultures derived from a methanogenic bioreactor. Amendment of cultures with exogenous methanogenic archaea, acetate, amino acids, and nucleoside monophosphates increased the relative abundance of Ca . Patescibacteria. The predominant Ca . Patescibacteria were families Ca . Yanofskyibacteriaceae and Ca . Minisyncoccaceae, and the former showed positive linear relationships ( r 2 ≥ 0.70) Methanothrix in their relative abundances, suggesting related growth patterns. Methanothrix and Methanospirillum cells with attached Ca . Yanofskyibacteriaceae and Ca . Minisyncoccaceae, respectively, had significantly lower cellular activity than those of the methanogens without Ca . Patescibacteria, as extrapolated from fluorescence in situ hybridization-based fluorescence. We also observed that parasitized methanogens often had cell surface deformations. Some Methanothrix -like filamentous cells were dented where the submicron cells were attached. Ca . Yanofskyibacteriaceae and Ca . Minisyncoccaceae highly expressed extracellular enzymes, and based on structural predictions, some contained peptidoglycan-binding domains with potential involvement in host cell attachment. Collectively, we propose that the interactions of Ca . Yanofskyibacteriaceae and Ca . Minisyncoccaceae with methanogenic archaea are parasitisms. IMPORTANCE Culture-independent DNA sequencing approaches have explored diverse yet-to-be-cultured microorganisms and have significantly expanded the tree of life in recent years. One major lineage of the domain Bacteria, Ca . Patescibacteria (also known as candidate phyla radiation), is widely distributed in natural and engineered ecosystems and has been thought to be dependent on host bacteria due to the lack of several biosynthetic pathways and small cell/genome size. Although bacteria-parasitizing or bacteria-preying Ca . Patescibacteria have been described, our recent studies revealed that some lineages can specifically interact with archaea. In this study, we provide strong evidence that the relationship is parasitic, shedding light on overlooked roles of Ca . Patescibacteria in anaerobic habitats.
Publication date

© 2022-2024 The SeqCode Initiative
  All information contributed to the SeqCode Registry is released under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 4.0 license